Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV) is designed for children ages 6 - 16, while the Wechsler. Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III. WISC – IV. WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR. CHILDREN. Learning Disabilities – A.A. Page 2. INTRODUCTION. •The test assesses the IQ. PDF | In the late s, David Wechsler's dramatic infl uence on the fi eld of The WISC-IV is the great-great-grandchild of the Wechsler-Bellevue Form II .
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This technical report is the fourth in a series intended to introduce the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fourth. Edition (WISC–IV; Wechsler, ). Because K.O. obtained the top scaled score on eleven WISC–IV subtests, his subtest composite scores were derived from special WISC–IV extended norms . WISC–IV SCALE. SCORE. Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI). Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI). Working Memory Index (WMI).
However, the results of these studies are difficult to compare due to the variety of assessment tools that have been used[ 10 ]. Furthermore, numerous studies showed a discrepancy between different intelligence tests in the autistic population, a difference not found in the general population.
Table of Contents
As an example, autistic individuals tend to perform better on the Raven Progressive Matrices, a well established tool assessing complex reasoning, than on the Wechsler scales[ 14 ]. Nevertheless, the Wechsler scales remain the most frequently used when assessing intellectual functioning and cognitive abilities in research and clinical settings[ 6 , 16 ].
Different patterns in subtest performance were also encountered among autistic individuals. Furthermore, their performance pattern is occasionally accompanied by low scores on the Digit Span and Coding subtests[ 27 , 36 ].
First, Performance and Verbal IQ scores were replaced with four index scores according to the results of previous factor analyses[ 38 ].
On the other hand, the WISC-IV Perceptual Reasoning Index changed substantially since the last edition and now comprises three subtests: Block Design from the previous edition and two new untimed, motor-free, visual reasoning tests Picture Concepts and Matrix Reasoning. Changes brought to the PRI decrease demands on perceptual-motor abilities, leading to a purer measure of fluid reasoning [ 16 ].
Studies with children presenting other neurological conditions i.
Thus, changes brought to the 4th edition of the WISC might lead to a different pattern of subtest and index scores performance for autistic children as well.
With this mixed picture, the inclusion of intellectual functioning in the diagnosis leads to the crucial question on how to assess intelligence in autism, especially as some subtests and indexes seem more sensitive to certain neurodevelopmental conditions[ 39 ].
Essentials of WISC-IV Assessment (Essentials of Psychological Assessment)
Thus, the composition of the instrument and the selection of subtests may have a greater impact for a clinical population than for typically developing individuals. Considering this variability, how will autistic individuals respond to different editions of the same instrument, namely two editions of the Wechsler scales? Does the cognitive profile remain stable despite changes within the test?
In a group of autistic children, the highest scores were on the two new reasoning subtests, Matrix Reasoning and Picture Concepts, and the lowest were on Coding, an attention subtest[ 4 ].
In another study, Oliveras-Rentas et al. In these studies, no direct comparison was made between the 3rd and 4th editions of the WISC. These issues were addressed in the current study with three major goals. Given the changes made to the 4th edition of the WISC, it was hypothesized that, in addition to the peak on the Block Design subtest, there would be a peak on the Matrix Reasoning subtest for this specific subgroup. The Fluid Reasoning scale subtests are described below: Matrix Reasoning primary, FSIQ — children are shown an array of pictures with one missing square, and select the picture that fits the array from five options.
Figure Weights primary, FSIQ — children view a stimulus book that pictures shapes on a scale or scales with one empty side and select the choice that keeps the scale balanced. Picture Concepts secondary — children are provided with a series of pictures presented in rows either two or three rows and asked to determine which pictures go together, one from each row.
WISC-IV Clinical Use and Interpretation
Arithmetic secondary — orally administered arithmetic word problems. The FRI is a measure of inductive and quantitative reasoning. The Working Memory scale's subtests are as follows: Digit Span primary, FSIQ — children listen to sequences of numbers orally and to repeat them as heard, in reverse order, and in ascending order.
Picture Span primary — children view pictures in a stimulus book and select from options to indicate the pictures they saw, in order if possible. Letter-Number Sequencing secondary — children are provided a series of numbers and letters and asked to provide them to the examiner in a predetermined order.
The WMI is a measure of working memory ability.
The Processing Speed subtests are as follows: Coding primary, FSIQ — children under 8 mark rows of shapes with different lines according to a code, children over 8 transcribe a digit-symbol code using a key. The task is time-limited. Symbol Search primary — children are given rows of symbols and target symbols, and asked to mark whether or not the target symbols appear in each row.
Cancellation secondary — children scan random and structured arrangements of pictures and marks specific target pictures within a limited amount of time.
Essentials of WISC-IV Assessment (Essentials of Psychological Assessment)
The PSI is a measure of processing speed. The set of these subtests is termed secondary subtests Wechsler, Two ancillary index scores termed the expanded index scores were released the year after the publication, so are not included in the published manuals. Three complementary index scores are available to measure cognitive processes that are important to achievement and are sensitive to specific learning disabilities. The complementary index scores are the Naming Speed Index NSI , designed to measure rapid automatized naming, and the Symbol Translation Index, designed to measure visual-verbal associative memory, which is sometimes termed visual-verbal paired associate learning in the published literature Wechsler, The Naming Speed scale contains Naming Speed Literacy, which measures rapid automatic naming , and Naming Speed Literacy, which is the only commercially published and normed measure of rapid quantity naming, also known as subitizing.
Naming Speed Quantity is uniquely sensitive to math achievement and specific learning disabilities in mathematics Raiford et al. Psychometric properties[ edit ] The WISC—V normative sample consisted of 2, children between the ages of 6 and 16 years 11 months.
In addition to the normative sample, a number of special group samples were collected, including the following: children identified as intellectually gifted, children with mild or moderate intellectual disability, children with specific learning disorders reading, written expression, and math , children with ADHD , children with disruptive behavior, children who are English Language Learners, children with autism spectrum disorder with language impairment, children with autism spectrum disorder without language impairment, and children with traumatic brain injuries.
The WISC—V is also linked with measures of achievement, adaptive behavior, executive function, and behavior and emotion. Equivalency studies were also conducted within the Wechsler family of tests and with a Kaufman test the KABC-II enabling comparisons between various intellectual ability scores over the lifespan. A number of concurrent studies were conducted to examine the scale's reliability and validity. Evidence of construct validity was provided through a series of factor-analytic studies and mean comparisons using matched samples of special group and nonclinical children.
Some practitioners use the WISC as part of an assessment to diagnose attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and learning disabilities , for example.
This is usually done through a process called pattern analysis, in which the various subtests' scores are compared to one another ipsative scoring and clusters of unusually low scores in relation to the others are searched for. David Wechsler himself suggested this in Other patterns for children with learning disabilities show a similar lack of usefulness of the WISC as a diagnostic tool.
When diagnosing children, best practice suggests that a multi-test battery i.Scoring The Psychological Corporation has provided information on its Web site http: Coding 6. Note that all Indexes interpretable and noninterpretable are included in the computation of the mean for practical reasons.
Progress in Psychometric Theories of Intelligence
This section of the report within a specified time limit Chen, H. Fluid Reasoning vs.
To do this, calculate the difference between the clusters in the comparison. This study was summarized in Chapter 1.
Also, a child with this pattern of performance is often described as knowing information shortly after studying it, but not being able to demonstrate that knowledge later e. When interpreting his WMI of 89, you should consider the Index as representing a b c d a unitary ability.
Similar to our previous writings on the Wechsler scales, our main objective was to provide a comprehensive and user-friendly reference for those who use the WISC-IV.